Perhaps from the 'beginning' people have had a sense of territory
and space. Today we call these divisions countries -- almost 200 of them worldwide.
A country is a territory with a population, its own sovereignty
and government. Governments implement policies and provide for the needs of the population. There are but a few
ways in which this is done.
There are authoritarian governments and democratic governments
in the largest view. And there are comibinations of each to be found as well.
In addition to setting policy, a government also has to provide
for an economic system. The government must decide what goods and services will be provided to the populace in what
amounts, how these things will be produced, and how these things will be distributed.
Generally, the economic system is one of three possibilities.
Capitalism -- in
which the people, in a free market decide what will be produced and in what amounts according to their purchases;
Communism -- in which
all production decisions are made by the government, a 'planned economy'.
Socialism -- in which
the government controls basic industries but leaves other businesses to the private sector.